Tuesday, April 5, 2011

Gagne Learning Theory

Robert M. Gagne proposed that traditional principles of learning can be applied into many training programme. He stated in his Hierarchical learning that simple task function as a component of a more complex function where he identified eight types of learning that function start off with simpler principles learning to higher ones. The sequence is from signal learning, stimulus response learning, psychomotor connection learning, verbal association learning, multiple discriminating learning, concept learning, principle learning, problem solving. Based on analyze of hierarchy learning theory, it actually provide guidance for educators so that they can identify prerequisites that should be completed to help the learning of children at each level. The guidance based on Gagne Hierarchy learning is by gaining attention from students (reception), inform the students the objective of learning (expectancy), gives stimulation to recall prior learning (retrieval), presenting the stimulus (Selective perception), provide learning guidance (Semantic encoding), eliciting performance (Responding), providing feedback (Reinforcement), assessing performance (Retrieval) and enhancing retention and transfer (Generalization).

Activity 2

Topic: Material Investigation (Year 4)
Activity: Build a frying pan
1.    Identify and describe the characteristic or properties of different materials.
2.    Using rational thinking to figure out the component and material need to build a frying pan.
3.    Identifies the properties of different component in frying pan.
4.    Using prior knowledge and experience to build up an item.
5.    Explore the general knowledge and creativity of student.

1.    Metal pan
2.    Wood pan
3.    Plastic pan
4.    Metal pan holder
5.    Wood pan holder
6.    Plastic pan holder
7.    String
8.    Wire
9.    Scissors

1.    Students are asked to recall prior learning on properties of various materials. They are also asked about their past experience regarding different type of material.
2.    Students are divided into a group of 4.
3.    All the materials are presented to the students.
4.    The student is required to name the items.
5.    The properties of various materials provided are described by the student.
6.    From the various materials the student is asked to identify and divide them into categories based on their similarities.
7.    Based on their creativity the student is asked to make a frying pan out of the materials given.
8.    Students are asked to present their frying pan and describe their frying pan. The reasons behind using the materials are reasoned and the usage of their frying pan is mentioned.

Application of Gagne Hierarchy Learning from the Activity

         As mentioned in the introduction the hierarchy of learning can be divided into eight types of learning from simpler one to complex ones. In the activity provided is on the application of the topic of material investigation. There is a few concept is applied.

         One of the simpler learning stage is used is the verbal association learning. Verbal association is where student is able to associate something verbally by mentioning the name of an item or describe them. This is implied in instruction 4 and 5 where the student is required to name the items presented to them. Besides that they also have to describe the properties of the materials that are shown.

         Another concept of learning used is the principle learning. Principle learning is a chain of two or more concepts. In learning there is always the need to associate the prior concepts and newly learned concepts to gain personal understanding. Here based on the prior concept or past experience of the student can link their knowledge to figure out the correct material to make a frying pan. Frying pan is made up of different component of different material this is where the concepts of various item is combine to form some principle of making a frying pan.

         Lastly throughout the activity we can clearly see that the student is asked to build something which regard as a problem. Hence the problem solving learning is applied too in this part of activity. Problem solving is when a person uses principle that have been learnt to solve the problem given. So the principle gain in the principle learning is used to solve the problem proposed to the student which is building a frying pan out of the materials given. In the process of problem solving, students also acquire the skill to use his knowledge and their skill is also enhanced. When the student actually presented their frying pan and reason the usage of different material they are actually answering the question. While reasoning the student knowledge is using their knowledge and their communicating skill also increases.

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