NATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION
is an on going effort towards further developing the potential of individuals in a holistic and integrated manner, in order to produce individuals who are intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and physically, balanced and harmoniously, based on a firm belief in and devotion to God. Such an effort is designed to produce Malaysian citizens who are knowledgeable and competent, who possess high moral standards and who are responsible and capable of achieving a high level of personal well being to contribute to the betterment of the nation, family and society. Malaysia
3.0 FACTORS IN DEVELOPING FPK
As mentioned in the concepts of formation of National Philosophy are based on national ideology, cultures of Malaysian society, Five National Principles, and Education Reports and Ordinance. Based on all this material there is a few factors that actually determine the content and aims of FPK:
3.1 Religious Factor
The quotation from the FPK “… Produce individuals who are intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and physically balanced and harmonious, based on a firm belief and devotion to God…” suggested the religious factor that present in FPK.
Malaysia is a multiracial and multi religion country but with Islam as the official religion in . While other religion is also freely embrace and worship by other such as Christianity, Buddhism, Hinduism and etc. At the same time based on the National Principe first sentence Believe in God is made into a part of the FPK. Malaysia also focuses the importance of religion being a part of a balanced person. Malaysia
3.2 Social Factor
Another factor is social factor that can be seen on the quotation”…to produce Malaysian citizen that are capable of achieving a high level of personal wellbeing to contribute to the betterment of the nation, family and society.
is a unique land with various races inhabit here. The harmony and prosperity of the nation depends very much on the citizen’s practice of tolerance, cooperation and mutual respect among the various citizens. It is through the correct practice then we can attain the peace, harmony and the stability of society and nation. Malaysia
3.3 Political Factor
The third factor is the political factor. Generally it is known that FPK was made up according to the national ideology which can be reflected on the official documents such as Education Reports, Malaysia Plans and National Principe. In this respect, the aim of achieving racial unity was one of the basic considerations when palming up the FPK. In fact this has been a very influential factor related to the social factor in the FPK.
3.4 Economic Factor
Specialization happens where Malaysians are trained with special skill in various fields can assist in the development of the national economy by upgrading their productivity. Such an aim can be accomplish with the production of individuals who are knowledgeable and competent, responsible and capable to contribute towards the betterment of the nation, family and society. The great ambition of
to be economic strong country becomes the prime objective of the national education on the FPK. Malaysia
3.5 Individual Factor
Process of education is claimed to be able to develop the potential of an individuals. These individual’s potentials cover all intellectual, spiritual, emotional and physical aspects. Holistic development by integrating all potential of individual in such a manner that produce balanced and harmonious citizens. Following this positive attitude is tried to be inculcate in individuals, enjoy spiritual peacefulness and ever ready to face challenges in life.Thus the ambition to produce balanced and harmonious individuals was also one of the aspirations of FPK.
3.6 International Factor
The last factor is International factor is International factor. Another influential that could not be ignored is the International factor that spreads their influence through international education seminars and forum that have a degree of influence in the design of FPK. One of the examples is the lifelong learning which were discussed and adapted by the UNESCO in the eighties. Its importance could be seen from the beginning where Education in
is an on-going effort…, which clearly stated that the concept of lifelong learning education with the respect to globalization of educations. Malaysia
International ties or also known as global cooperation also play an important key in developing a nation. A good image and relationship with other countries gain many advantageous. Because of this reason,
tries to play her role in the international arena, such as contribution to peace and prosperity, fostering good relationship with other countries. This effort is made sure to be followed by future generation. Hence the national education programme is mould to produced educated, competent and high moral citizens, who will be able to serve and contribute not only to the progress of the nation but also provide their service to maintain international peace and stability. Malaysia
4.0 ELEMENTS AND IMPORTANT ASPECT IN FPK
There are many methods that we can use to analyze all the essential contained in National Philosophy of Education such as ontology, axiology and logic. Based on the analyses we can identify a few elements.
One of them is to develop potentials of individuals. Potential are something that are born within a person. Each individuals also posses abilities. These talent are considered gifts of God which compose of intellectual, spiritual, emotional, and physical aspect of any individual. Through education is that this inborn talents and abilities can be developed and constantly improved. The potentials of individuals are ought to be developed to the optimum level by integrating their own talent and abilities that are closely related to each another. This is what means by holistic and integrated potentials.
It is clearly highlighted in the FPK in developing balanced and harmonious individuals. A well balanced and harmonious individuals is people who posses integrated personality and able to enjoy contentment and happiness spiritually. At the same time the person will also feel grateful and ready to accept challenges as well as willing to make effort to solve and overcome problems.
Balanced individuals are those that have a balance in their physical, emotional, spiritually and social development. Physical aspect includes aspects such as maintaining physical agility and good health that enable those individuals to work independently and contribute towards the personal well being as well as for the betterment of family, society and nations. Meanwhile intellectual aspect covers the cognitive knowledge. Cognitive here not only includes the ability to think rationally logically and solving problem. Being knowledgeable and able to think critically and creatively is important. Meanwhile the spiritual and emotional aspects cover elements such as belief in God, embrace religious faith, spiritual stability, emotional intelligence, appreciation of moral value and norms of society, good behavior, loyalty and wiling to sacrifice for the people and the country.
Belief in and devoting to God is one of the important aspects. Belief concerns the human confidence that the surrounding environment that does not exists but provided by the God. The law of nature is actually the Law of God. Thus individuals should exemplify devotions; trust a responsibility to the God in respect of efforts to administer and develop the environment.
Malaysian has the ambition to produce educated Malaysians that are competent with noble characters. People who possess positive attitude love to read, diligent to acquire and apply their knowledge will not only benefit themselves but also others. Such an example is the scientist that are highly educated using their knowledge they created high technology that is use for the betterment of the others like developing methods that stop HIV. People who are competent possess knowledge and various skills are able to contribute for the progress of nation. Capable of performing their duties competently and satisfactorily according to condition and requirement is what they do. Noble character meant here that people that have high moral values that also possess the qualities such as discipline integrated the noble practice in their life. It is very important here because with high intellectual but without the application of noble character could bring to worst of the society and the nations.
Malaysian also hopes to be responsible and capable in achieve personal well being. Responsible towards God, race and nation in performing their duties with honesty and dedicatedly is what hoped by the government in producing their citizen. Besides responsible the personal well being is also very important as it contribute to the betterment of the family, religion and even the nation.
Other important aspect is to foster the capability of Malaysian in contribution to the nation. Through proper education and training people can use their productivity and innovation skill to upgrade their productivities to bring a higher level of economic development. Here it does not limited to industrial sector but other as well such as service sector that involves professionals such as doctors, lawyers and etc.
Lastly the important aspects are harmony and the prosperity of society and nation. Racial harmony can be achieve through the practice of proper attitude such as tolerance, cooperation, mutual respect and foster unity among various races in Malaysia to promote the harmonious and peaceful of the nation. The harmonious environments will help in the development of the economy and advancement of all fields. Harmonious environment encourage investor to invest in our country and also the blooming of our tourism industry.
5.0 ROLES OF SCHOOL IN REALIZATION THE FPK
School is the main stage in realization of FPK. The school plays an important role in providing the correct environment, holding different programmes and activities and lastly the cooperation of the school community in managing their role in realizing the FPK.
5.1 Roles of School Management in Developing the Intellectual, Physical, Emotional, Spiritual and Social aspect of Student
The moment I walked into the school office I could see an organization chart of the school. An organization chart is a type of diagram that schools the position of the organization from the highest position to the lower ones. Through the organization chart we can see the systematic arrangement of the school management.The school community comprise of the school head, senior assistants, panel heads, class teacher and the students. Each of this position especially plays a very important role as a part of FPK. It is through the correct management of the various positions in the school only then the intellectual, physical, emotional, spiritual and social (JERIS) aspects of students can be fully developed.
5.1.1 School Head
School Head can be considered as the leader of the school that deals with almost everything regarding the school. Based on the school head of SK Sultan Aziz said that the main roles of the school head can be simplified into four main categories management, curriculum, co curriculum, behavior of students (Reference: Collaboration). Through the reference gain the roles of school head is more complex that can made up of account and financial, office management, academic progress and mastering 3M skill, education programme, communication with the society, the staff, teachers, building and others.
How school finance the money provided and where the school gets the money? This comes under the work of school head in managing the finance and getting extra SUWA income for new buildings or getting new appliances or upgrades the school facilities. Usually the school head will announce the activities used to increase the school income. Some of the common activities are the Jogathon collection and Canteen Day. Jogathon Day is an event where all students are asked to make collection and later compete in a healthy running race. Asking for collection is one of the ways to help in developing social skill among students. Meanwhile the running activity can promote healthy lifestyle among student instead of studying all the time.
Second role is office management. Filing can be said one of the most important function where every document related to school or activities done and issued documents are filed in every possible method using file or computer’s folder. Documents such as the student’s record or student’s overall achievement is required in investigate the student’s development. Through the record then only we can formulate the ideal method in helping out student’s that encounter problem such as mastering 3M or having behavioral problem. This is special needed when the student is a transfer student from other school. Based on the data recorded by the past school we can see student have any problem.
Under the role of academic progress and mastering 3M skill it is the school head to make every effort in ensure all students master the 3M skill which represented the reading, writing and counting skill. These three basic skills are essential for student to going on further in study. Hence school head should have a special group of teachers in dealing with this kind of problem to make sure all students master the 3M skill.
Next role of school head in education programme is to plan and determine the time table of the teachers. This is to ensure the curriculum of education can run smoothly under various teachers for all types of subject. Precise planning is required to ensure all the classes have the time need as suggested by the Ministry of Education for different object. With the practice of having time table for teachers and students it actually helps the student to be systematic and doing thing according to the time.
The foundation of the teacher and parent association is one of the good examples that show the communication of the school community with the student’s parents. Through this association parents could actually voice out their problem regarding their children’s progress in school and also give positive comment towards the betterment. Knowing all the problem is essential in helping to develop the students in all the aspect mentioned in the FPK. At the same time the teacher can tell the parents what actually happened in the school. The person who is in charge in handling the association is the school head.
Teacher’s role is to teach and the school head’s role is to match the teacher’s job or subject according to his or her interest and abilities. Only then the teacher can work more comfortable as they are motivated by their interest and felt confidence with the abilities. Interest and abilities are the great weapon in impart knowledge and also other good values among student. An incapable teacher that lack of interest will only teaches for the sake of teaching without caring if the student gets the knowledge. If this happen the student not only unable to learn and developed into the dreamed citizen mention in FPK but also might follows the teacher’s example in doing their work. As teacher is one of the important role model.
Regarding with the building the school head is required to ensure the safety of the school and also the upgrade the school facilities for the greater use of the student such as the library. In the school which I observed they had various gallery such as Science, Math and etc around the school’s garden. All this facilities is needed to enhance the student’s development in JERIS. For an example is the library. Library means book. Within the library is books filled in shelf this environment can help in promoting student’s interest in reading. Reference book in the library can help student’s academically in their assignment.
5.1.2 Senior Assistance
As time passes by the Ministry of Education also tries to improve the qualities of the students by promoting position of senior assistance. Based on the FPK the number of the position of the senior assistance can be divided into three where each has different areas to focus on. There are the main senior assistance, student welfare senior assistance and the co curriculum senior assistance.
18.104.22.168 Main Senior Assistance (PK1)
Main senior assistance’s (PK1) function is to help in management, improve the teacher’s teaching and student’s learning performance. He or she is in charge of the school in the absence of the school head. Activities hold by the Education department such as the recent anti drug programme is under the senior assistance care. The recent anti drug campaign is a programme where beginning of the 5 minutes class the class teacher will tell something about drug. This is a whole year programme that serves as awareness to students towards the danger of drug as the amount of student’s involving with drug increase. The country need citizen that are free from all this drug as drug causes great impact on the country as well as obstruct development of the nation. This is also a programme that helps the student’s spiritual development as many religions forbid taking addictive or intoxicate item.
Other than that main senior assistance also has to decide the proper amount of work should be given to the teachers. Balance work or burden should be given to the teacher to make sure that some teachers are too burden and tired while some are too free. But it also comes under the ability of the teachers and other conditions such as health.
Lastly the main senior assistance also has to take care of the cleanliness and the security of the school. Clean environment is important as it is way to prevent disease. As the work of the senior assistance is to make sure the stuff are cleaning the school compound. Furthermore beautification of the school compound is needed. Planning of methods to increase the cleanliness and beautification is needed. Methods that are used are having competition between classes where classes are given certain area in the school to clean. The class with the most clean and beautiful compound is considered winner. In this activity it can actually inculcate the values of cleanliness and love the nature. Besides that beautification of compound also needs creativity that helps in developing the cognitive or intellectual aspects of the students. The security mention doesn’t limit to the security guard that are posted on the main gate of the school but also the security of the during fire breakout. The student is given the exercise on methods to prevent fire and what to do during fire breakout. This does not only serve the purpose as the knowledge but also a type of discipline where through out the exercise the student must obey the teachers.
22.214.171.124 Student Welfare Senior Assistance (PK HEM)
On the other hand student welfare senior assistance (PK HEM) is in taking care of the student’s discipline, welfare and also diffuses the moral values into the student. Matter on the rules and regulations are her work. Dealing with student’s discipline record and enforce the rules and regulation of the school is her duty. This is to make sure the student’s are discipline and practice good moral value in their life. She also takes charge of the student’s health and welfare. She has to making sure the activities such as annual doctor check up or dentist check up is functioning as normal. Student’s health is important as it affect their daily life and also their growth and development. There is the activity as annual dentist and doctor to ensure the student is healthy. So does activity such as the milk project and food programme held in school.
126.96.36.199 Co Curriculum Senior Assistance (PK Koko)
The co curriculum senior assistance deals with the student’s attendance and involvement in many co curriculum activities. Most of the co curriculum senior assistance work involves with managing the co curriculum activities such as determine the club’s or uniform body’s teacher advisor. From here we can see how the Ministry of Education tries to develop more balanced individuals. Through club activities the student can get into club that they are interested that such as science, cooking, and art. If the student chooses art club he or she could further developed their art potential through the activities hold in the club. It is a time where the students interact and learn to socialize. Sport clubs help in refining the student’s skill in the type of sport they play and also developed their physical. During the age of 6 to 18 this is the time where children grow rapidly with the help of sport they will grow healthier.
5.1.3 Panel Head
Below is the duty of panel head:
- The duty of panel head is responsible in the curriculum and management of the respectable area.
- Panel head is also in charge with the planning and management curriculum with the school head.
- Helping the school head in testing out the effectiveness of the teaching and learning of his or her area.
- Organizing programme to increase the academic progress and behavior of student.
- Helping the school head regarding his or her area of expertise.
- Teach for minimum 18 hours a week.
Based on the duty of the panel head we can say he is responsible in developing the student’s intellectual more as his duty emphasis more on the intellectual side from organizes programme, testing out the effectiveness of teaching and learning process. His job is to promote the academic progress of the student so he is in charge of coming out with various method to make sure the student gets better academic results.
5.1. 4Class Teacher
Class teacher functions as the parent to the student than managing the overall activities or progress of the school like the school head or the head panel. Below is a table on the basic of what a class teacher does.
Managing the class and organization
Form the class organization, deciding the time table and duty roster and inform any damage of electrical appliances in the class.
Make sure the information needed on the attendance book is filled. Mark the attendance book daily.
Filling the document
The living certificate, the academic record, 001 card is filled by the teachers.
Learning, health and discipline problem
Encourage and motivate student in learning. Be concern of the student’s problem. Report to the teacher in charge based on the problem.
According to the information acquired the class teacher actually helps in detecting the problems of the class and also deals with the welfare of the students. Class teacher’s concern and dedication is important as it makes the students feel that they are cared by the teacher which makes them more comfortable in telling their problems. Encouragement and motivation are needed in not on intellectual aspects of the student but others aspects but it depends on how the class teacher does it.
Infrastructure is the stock of basic facilities and capital equipment needed for the functioning of a country or area. Simple based on the definition we know that infrastructure is required for the school to function efficiently. Basic school facilities can be distribute into learning area, hall canteen, field, resource centre, science laboratories. The latest school infrastructure is computer laboratories.
Learning Area can be referred as the place to study which usually is the classroom. Classroom is the main learning area as the student spends almost all their time in the school in class. Being an important place for study the environment must be conducive so that the teaching and learning process would be more effective. Around the classroom there would be display of many materials such as time table, duty roster, organization chart and the school’s rules and regulations. In addition there are various material based on the subject that the students take. This material is important for reinforcement or remembrance purposes. Cleanliness and beautification is important to keep the environment conducive and comfortable.
Hall is a place where gathering of the school community can be held. It is a place of information transfer and communication. One of the usual function hold in the hall in the assembly. During assembly the teacher in charge will update the others with the school’s cleanliness report, the latest event that took place. Sometimes the teacher will give some talk on different topic. In the beginning of the assembly with singing the nation anthem followed by the state anthem and other important song. Singing all this song is a part or way to inculcate the love for the country. At the end of the assembly the school head will give some motivational talk and advises to the student. All these talk actually helps the student emotionally where they actually felt motivated and able to do thing better. In the school where I attended for SBE the school head even introduce some words to broaden the student vocabulary.
Canteen is a place to cure hunger. Students and teachers even the stuff also comes here to have their meal. When it comes to food cleanliness and the personal hygiene of the canteen worker means a lot. Other than that is the food they serve. Serving the proper balance meal with affordable price is essential. Proper balance meal is required for the body the growth of health body. Unhealthy junk food should be forbidden in the canteen as the students eat what that is sold. So to avoid health problem as health life is one of the basic for the development of physical aspect.
Vast green field is something that student is happy about. Field signifies games and sports to the students. Many activities can be held in the field but the main usage of field in the school is for physical education and sports mostly. Physical education is one of the subjects that emphasis more towards physical development. Physical education is the time where student is taught play different kind of sports, learning to be cooperate in team games, be discipline as to follow the rules for each game or sport and so much more. Sports are a very healthy activity that can keep away a lot of unnecessary disease such as obese.
Resource centre is a place filled with many different types of resources books, documentation, cd and etc. All this material is important as they give information and knowledge to others. But the most used resource for the student is the book. Though most books borrowed by the students are fiction and the second highest borrowed is the reference book. Fiction let the student be entertained at the same time learning the structure of story writing and gaining some new words in between. Meanwhile reference book provided information on their studies. Reference book is a type of material that helps in the academic of students.
A Science laboratory is place for conducting scientific research. Through experimenting the student is able to explore all they want and gaining truth and facts. This is one of the methods of discovery learning. Experimenting is a very good way to develop the intellectual, cognitive, social, spiritually and also emotion of the student. Students need to experiment based on their hypothesis. Through the experiment they also need to verify the variables in an experiment and master various scientific process skills. Through the experiment they gain knowledge which is under the intellectual development. Usually experimenting involves grouping hence social skill and emotional skill can be developed. During the time of falling experiment the strong will to continue can also be categorized as emotional skill. In the times where there is problem with the data provided we must be truthful and avoid cheating.
Besides the facilities provided there are many small particular in the school such as school mural and motivational phrases. School mural is one of the methods to beautify the school with useful material. One of the murals that I saw in the school I attended for SBE has a mural on the solar system where they named all the planet and wrote some characteristic of the planet. Mural is one of the pictorial ways to transfer knowledge just like what people say a picture worth a thousand words. Besides that most of the mural are drawn by student themselves, this can show their creativity and ideas.
Moreover there are also some motivational phrases hanging around the school compound. Some of the phrases sound like this where there is a will there is a way. Motivational phrases are important and helpful especially when some people feel down and need encouragement and motivation. Motivation works as a starter that makes students feel that they can do a lot of things if they really try.
This included in many things such as academic improvement or other problems the student encounters.
6.0 IMPLICATION OF FPK TOWARDS NATIONAL EDUCATION SYSTEM
National Education Philosophy
Implication of FPK on School Culture
Implication of FPK on Education Reforms
Reformations / Introduction of
1. The style of administration and leadership in schools changes from autocratic to democratic style.
2. Routine, stereotype service changes to loving and emphatic type of service.
3. Technical rationality which assumed that all equal and homogenous, routine and static changes to reflective rationality with different and heterogeneous, unique and dynamic individualities among pupils.
4. The strategies of teacher – oriented in teaching – learning activities change to the application of pupil – oriented strategy.
5. The education programme from knowledge – base changes to integrated education programme which includes development of spiritual, intellectual, emotional, social and physical aspects.”
Comprehensive education system
Integrated Science and Modern Mathematics for primary and secondary schools.
Curriculum KBSR for primary schools
Curriculum KBSM for secondary schools
Science and Local Studies as two new subjects to replace the subject of Man and Environment in the primary schools.
English language as the medium of instruction for the subjects of Mathematics, Science and other technical subjects
Implication of FPK on the Roles of Teacher
1. Teachers who are dynamic will always be responsive and adaptable to face education changes from time to time.
2. With the declaration of FPK and Vision 2020 in 1988 and 1991 respectively, the main objective and aspiration of Malaysians to build a united society through the education programme has become clearer.
3. Changes that took place is:
Responsibilities and roles of teachers
1. To educate pupils to become useful citizens of the future who should be knowledgeable, possess noble character and able to achieve well – being for personal self, and contribute for the development and progress of the society and nation.
2. To educate pupils so that they will possess various types of living skills, especially in the technical and vocational fields, as well as to fulfill the aspirations and progress of individuals, society and nation according to the aspirations of FPK, and
3. To act as agent of change to bring along innovations to fulfill the aspirations and progress of pupils, society and nation, so as to realize the objectives of National Education based on FPK.
1. Changes in the syllabus which should be oriented towards an integrated programme.
2. Changes in learning materials with emphasis on the noble values which should be integrated with every subject in the school curriculum.
7.0 Conclusion and Recommendation
In conclusion the National Education Philosophy (FPK) gives a very big impact on the development of education that involves the ministry of education, formation of various new concepts in education, curriculum, co-curriculum, schools, teachers and students. In addition FPK actually gives the educator a big push to betterment and great improvement in giving the aim and direct guidelines in their noble route in impart knowledge. Overall this causes a great improvement of the citizen of the nation as mention in the FPK in the formation of balanced and harmonious individuals physically, intellectual, emotional, spiritually and socially, citizen that lives in harmony , believes in god and loyal to the king and the country and other great aims as mention in FPK. As a future teacher is our great voyage in doing our best in understanding the FPK and applies it in our teaching in the future.
Through the School Based Experience done in the school I think there is some recommendation that help in pushing schools for greater improvement.
1. Based on the problem of obese among student there should be more action takes by the school in helping the government in solving this problem. My suggestion :
Having a healthy programme for those with unhealthy lifestyle such as excess consumption, lack of exercise and etc.
Suggest proper diet to the parents and alert the parents regarding the danger of obese. The dangers of obese include the slow physical and cognitive development and also lurk various disease such as heart attack and arteriosclerosis.
The canteen should prepare more healthy food. Food with excess lipid such as nasi lemak and curry noodle should be lessened. Junk food should be forbidden. It is a much better suggestion rather than banning the fast food consumption as the ratio of student in eating in canteen is higher.
2. As emphasized in FPK in developing the spiritual development in school but there seem to be lack of effort in developing this aspect compared to intellectual aspects. The current effort is:
Having moral lesson as a part of curriculum.
Certain school has society such as Youth Christian Society and Buddhist Society.
My suggestion is:
There should be some day where gathering held in between student and teachers of similar religion to talk and discuss their understanding of their religion. Here the student can gain more spiritual development as some parents don’t spend time with children on religion matter. Activities like singing studying the noble book such as Quran and bible based on religion.
Soon Sang Mok (2006). Penghantar Pendidikan Teras. Subang Jaya.Kumpulan Budiman Sdn Bhd.
Soon Sang Mok (2003). An Educational Course for KPLI. Subang Jaya.Kumpulan Budiman Sdn Bhd.